雅思阅读第一步——看懂长难句

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发布时间: 2019-01-31

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1. All that was known of electricity and magnetism was what the ancients knew, nothing more than that the lodestone possessed magnetic properties and that amber and jet, when rubbed, would attract bits of paper or other substances of small specific gravity.


2. Born in an eminent local family in Colchester county in the UK on May 24, 1544, he went to grammar school, and then studied medicine at St. Johns College, Cambridge, graduating in 1573.


3. He gradually developed his interest in physics after the great minds of the ancient, particularly about the knowledge the ancient Greeks had about lodestones, strange minerals with the power to attract iron.


4. In the meantime, Britain became a major seafaring nation in 1588 when the Spanish Armada was defeated, opening the way to British settlement of America.


5. Or was there a magnetic mountain at the pole, as described in Odyssey, which ships would never approach, because the sailors thought its pull would yank out all their iron nails and fittings? 


6. Though the early beliefs of magnetism were also largely entangled with superstitions such as that rubbing garlic on lodestone can neutralize its magnetism, one example being that sailors even believed the smell of garlic would even interfere with the action of compass, which is why helmsmen were forbidden to eat it near a ships compass.


7. Gilbert also found that metals can be magnetized by rubbing materials such as fur, plastic or the like on them. 


8. His research of static electricity using amber and jet only demonstrated that objects with electrical charges can work like magnets attracting small pieces of paper and stuff.


9. It is a French guy named du Fay that discovered that there are actually two electrical charges, positive and negative.


10. Though a Copernican, he didnt express in his quintessential beliefs whether the earth is at the center of the universe or in orbit around the sun.


11. However he believed that stars are not equidistant from the earth, but have their own earth-like planets orbiting around them.


12. The earth is itself like a giant magnet, which is also why compasses always point north.


13. They spin on an axis that is aligned with the earths polarity.


14. Thus a perfectly spherical lodestone, when aligned with the earths poles, would wobble all by itself in 24 hours.


15. Further, he also believed that suns and other stars wobble just like the earth also around a crystal core, and speculated that the moon might also be a magnet caused to orbit by its magnetic attraction to the earth.


16. This was perhaps the first proposal that a force might cause a heavenly orbit.

 


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