7.19-限制性和非限制性定语从句学习

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发布时间: 2017-07-19

限制性定语从句:
限制性定语从句对先行词起限制、修饰的作用,关系代词有that,which,whom,who,whose以及关系副词when,where等,没有明显的逗号把从句与主语分开,表达的意思为被修饰词的一个定语。
例句:
Do you know the professor who is speaking at the meeting?
Where is the book which I bought this morning?

非限制性定语从句:
作用相当于一种插入语或者对先行词的一种解释,和先行词之间只有比较松散的关系,文字中常常用逗号将其与主句分开,用法其实与限制性定语从句极为相似,只是不能用that做修饰词。
例句:
This letter is from his parents, who are working in Tibet.
English is an important subject, which every students should study well.
The building, in front of which sat a boy, was a school.


一、
定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:
This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)
The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)
2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:
Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。
My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。
This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:
He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。
Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。
二、
从形式上看,限制性定语从句与其先行词紧紧相连,两者没有停顿;非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开。从意义上讲,限制性定语从句用来修饰先行词,两者密不可分;而非限制性定语从句仅仅对先行词作补充性叙述或说明,两者关系不那么紧密。由于两种定语从句存在着这些区别,一般来说,限制性定语从句多半译成汉语的前置定语,修饰其后的先行词,非限制性定语从句则往往译成后置的并列从句。that不能引导非限制性定语从句。通常对定语从句处理如下:
(1) 限制性定语从句译成前置定语
These neighborhoods frequently recreate much of the culture and the values of the nationality that makes up the majority of the population.
这些居民区经常再现构成大多数居民的大量民族文化和价值观念。
(2) 非限制性定语从句译成后置的并列分句
In almost all developing countries, economic development depends upon growth in export trade, which in turn creates jobs and raises living standards.
几乎所有的发展中国家经济的发展都依赖于出口贸易的增长,而出口的增长又有助于创造更多的就业机会和提高人民的生活水平。
但是,有时候因为意思上的关系,或者出于汉语句子结构上的考虑,要把限制性定语从句译成后置的并列分句,而把非限制性定语从句译成前置定语。
(3) 限制性定语从句译成后置的并列从句
Each team plays ten or eleven games each season which begins in September and ends in November.
每个队每赛季参加十到十一场比赛,每个赛季九月份开始,十一月份结束。
(4) 非限制性定语从句译成前置定语
He appeared to be returning home from a walk, for his buckle shoes, which followed a fashion long since out of date, were covered with dust.
他好象是散步之后回家去,因为他那早已过时的扣鞋上布满了灰尘。
(5) 有的定语从句,从意义上看实际相当于一个状语从句,表示原因,目的,结果,让步等关系。这样的定语从句应译出汉语的偏正复句,但是要加上相应的连接词以表明其与主句的关系。
Norway is, quite naturally, paying great attention to developments in Europe and in the Atlantic community, which are so instrumental to the maintenance of peace and security in our part of the world.
挪威自然十分关切欧洲和大西洋国家的发展,因为这些发展大大有助于维护世界上我们这一地区的和平和安全

说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。
三、下面是些例题,你做做看。
一、that不能用来引导非限制性定语从句。如:

【考例一】She heard the terrible noise, ________brought her heart into her mouth.

A. it B. which C. this D. that

【解析】选B。后半句为非限制性定语从句,尽管先行词noise属于事物,也不能用that而要用which来引导。which指代noise,在从句中作主语。

二、除which外,还可用when,where,whose,whom等引导非限制性定语从句,且各自的用法及差异与它们用在限制性定语从句时相同。如:

Next month, when youll spend your summer holidays in your hometown, is approaching. 下个月即将来临,届时你们将在家乡度暑假。(关系副词when指代表示时间的名词next month,并作从句的状语。)

She is going to live in Macao, where she has some close friends. 她要到澳门去居住,在那里她有几个密友。 (关系副词where指代表示地点的名词Macao,并在从句中作状语。)

【考例二】Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ________was very reasonable.

A. which price

B. the price of which

C. its price

D. the price of whose

【解析】选B。whose在从句中作表示所属关系的定语,既可指代人,也可指代物。指物时,常可转换为of which;指人时常可转换为of whom。

【考例三】 In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 pm,______many people have gone home.

A. whose time B. that

C. on which D. by which time

【解析】 先行词5:30 pm与time之间是一种同位关系,可用which来作定语替代。从句中的完成状态,常与by短语连用。故选D。

三、在非限制性定语从句中作宾语的关系代词不能省略。如:

He was eager to go to the hospital to see his stepmother, whom he loved as his own mother. 他迫切地想到医院去看望他的继母,他把继母当自己的亲妈妈一样爱戴。

四、非限制性定语从句的关系代词which,既可以指代前面的先行词,也可以指代前面整句的含义。如:

【考例四】 Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, of course,________made the others unhappy.

A. who B. which

C. this D. what

【解析】选B。指代“Dorothy总是高度评价自己在那场戏中所担任的角色”的整个事件。

【考例五】Carol said the work would be done by October,________personally I doubt very much.

A. it B. that

C. when D. which

【解析】表示时间的名词October,用“我个人非常怀疑”来修饰,意思不通。应该修饰整个主句, 表示对“Carol说在十月前能做好这项工作”怀疑。故选D。

五、引导非限制性定语从句时as和which的差异:从句置于句首时,非限制性定语从句只能用as引导,而置于句末时,两者都可以使用。 如:

【考例六】________is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.

A. It B. As C. That D. What

【解析】逗号表明为非限制性定语从句。选B。

【考例七】________is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high schools is increasing.

A. Which B. As

C. That D. It

【解析】答案为B。与考例六同理。


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